- Drip pricing - where optional price increments such as taxes, card charges and delivery charges are added during the buying process
- Time-limited offers - for example “offer must end today”
- Bait pricing - when consumers are drawn in with offers of discounts although few items are available at the discount price
- Complex pricing - for example offers where the price depends on numerous elements which may be conditional on each other
- Reference pricing - such as “was £100, now £60”
- Multiple unit price promotions - such as “three for two”
- ’Free’ products offered as part of a package - such as “first two months free
Source: Rafi Mohammed, FOXBusiness
Source: QSRmagazine.com - Denise Lee Yohn
Swiss Nestle and Paris-based Danone are more exposed to milk costs than to other commodities, and prices have been rising this year due to strong emerging market demand and lower production in Europe and North America.
Nestle is the world's biggest milk buyer for its products such as Nido milk powder, Coffee-Mate and Cailler chocolate, while Danone has nearly two-thirds of its sales in dairy products such as Activia yoghurt and Actimel drinks.
There are also some fears that rising grain prices due largely to drought and an export ban in Russia will add to the pressure on milk prices as European farmers feed more grains to dairy cattle during the colder winter months. But analysts say the rise in milk prices is showing sign of cooling and the highest prices this year were well below 2007's peaks, even if it pays to keep a careful eye on Danone as milk accounts for more of its input costs than in the case of rivals.
"In terms of size Nestle has most exposure to milk. However, given the concentration of its portfolio Danone will be impacted most from higher milk prices," said analyst Jon Cox at Kepler Capital Markets in Zurich. Danone has recognised the rise in milk prices by raising its forecast of milk cost inflation in July to 10 percent for 2010 from 5-7 percent previously, but has also added that prices had peaked in the early summer and were now trending down. Analysts say milk accounts for 38 percent of Danone's raw material costs, 23 percent at Nestle and 6 percent at Unilever Plc/NV, and buying forward is quite difficult for liquid milk and companies often buy directly from farmers.
This means liquid milk prices can be more volatile than the more widely traded skimmed milk powder, and here Danone is the most exposed as the need for fresh milk is greater at the French yoghurt group, while Nestle is able to buy half of its requirement as milk powder for its milk drinks and chocolates.
Nestle, the world's biggest food group, spent 5 billion Swiss francs on milk in 2009.
"Dairy is one of the areas where we are seeing an escalation in costs and therefore it's one of the areas where you are likely to see some pricing action," Nestle finance director Jim Singh told an investor roadshow this month.
European Union milk powder prices peaked at around $5,500 (3,529 pounds) a tonne in 2007 falling to around $1,700 in early 2009 before edging back to just below $3,000 currently, and analysts say milk powder does give a pointer to future liquid prices.
"On the whole, milk prices have become much more volatile over the last two years which is due to the fact that the European Union intervenes less on milk prices," said Dieter Mirbach, manager of industry group European Dairy Farmers.
NOT SUCH A BIG ASK Danone raised its prices following the 2007 milk price surge, only to cut them in the middle of 2009 when costs fell, so analysts say investors are right to be wary when Danone starts raising prices in such a volatile market.
Analyst Alex Molloy at Credit Suisse said 40 percent of Danone's dairy sales are in emerging markets where general inflation runs at around 5 percent and so pushing up price is not such a big ask. Analyst Pablo Zuanic at Liberum Capital said United States liquid milk prices are starting to come down and West European prices are also peaking, and an LTO Nederland survey of European milk prices for July due on Sept 3 may confirm this.
The survey showed average European milk prices in June were up 23 percent year-on-year at 30.26 euros per 100 litres to reach an 18-month high. However, if prices have peaked then Zuanic says a Danone price rise of just 2 percent in Western Europe in the second half of 2010 will be needed.
"We continue to argue the price increase "needed" by Danone in Western Europe for the second half is quite manageable," he said. Pressure on Danone may intensify if grain prices continue to rise with Orianne Segaud at Natixis saying, "If wheat prices continue to rise, Danone has the least protection as it is the most exposed to liquid milk prices with no hedging mechanism." But New Zealand, the world's largest milk exporter largely through butter and milk powder trade, produces its milk from grass-fed livestock without any cereal-based supplement so any grain price rise will not affect production costs.
Barry Callebaut, the world's largest chocolate maker which counts Nestle and Hershey among its clients, is one of the top three users of milk powder in Europe but has been relatively insulated from price rises as it uses no fresh liquid milk in its chocolate production. Anglo-Dutch Unilever's main milk usage is at its world leading Cornetto, Magnum and Ben & Jerry's ice cream operation but it is a smaller milk buyer compared to Nestle and Danone.
Amazon.co.uk launched its Kindle e-book store two weeks ago, promising to offer the lowest prices on the market. In response, W H Smith dropped the price of its top 100 fiction e-books to a third of their original level, and then said that it would sell all e-books at a 50% discount.
Amazon has consistently priced some of the bestselling titles in the market at less than £3, leading to publishers and rival retailers accusing it of selling the titles as loss leaders. Stieg Larsson’s Millennium trilogy is among those available at less than £3. Iain Miller, marketing and digital publishing manager at Larsson’s publisher Quercus, declined to comment on Amazon’s pricing tactics.
However, another senior publisher attacked the pricing strategies of W H Smith and Amazon. He said: "It’s absolutely absurd to devalue our product but I’m not surprised because our industry is populated by nincompoops." He said Amazon’s move could make the agency model less attractive to publishers. He said: "In this instance, on the wholesale model, publishers are fine because it is retailers taking the pain. If we say a book is £10 and you get 40% discount, we get £6. If the retailer chooses to sell it for £2, we’re still all right."
A review of e-book prices undertaken by The Bookseller shows that Amazon and WHS are offering the lowest prices. Kindle and WHS e-books are also significantly cheaper than their counterparts on Apple’s iBookstore, where prices are set by the publisher.
Before the Sony Reader launch in 2008, publishers argued that the value of e-books needed to be at parity with the print edition. Some publishers contacted this week claimed Amazon’s move would not lead to expectations of low e-books prices. One said: "It’s a minuscule market and early doors for e-books in the UK. There’s no way the stable door has closed in terms of the size of the business in 10 years’ time."
This Spring, I read Smart Pricing by Jagmohan Raju and Z. John Zhang. It is an interesting book that covers multiple pricing strategies for businesses. The book got me thinking about how travel businesses should price their products and how I priced travel products in the former travel businesses I operated and the strategies I used to successfully build two travel companies.
I have recently published a marketing strategy I developed called the Automated-Booking Markup Strategy, that combines a proven website marketing tactic with a pricing strategy. I discuss this strategy at the end of the article.
Zhang says, “that when it comes to pricing, some estimated that only 8% of American businesses can be considered sophisticated players.” So most businesses don’t have a pricing strategy for their products.
There are three types of traditional pricing strategies in business. Cost + pricing, competition-based pricing, and consumer-based pricing.
In summary; cost + pricing takes the average cost of the product then adds a markup, competition-based pricing confirms the prices of its competitors, then sets the price of the product at the same price of the competition or either a little above or below, consumer-based pricing looks at a target customer and tries to determine how much that client type will pay for the product, then prices according to how much that target customer will pay. In 1994 my wife and I operated a bed & breakfast-fly fishing lodge called the Yellow Breeches House in Boiling Springs, Pennsylvania. The house was modern inside and decorated in fly-fishing decor. The Allenberry Resort a high-end resort with 75 rooms and cottages was located ¾ a mile from the house. Three traditional B&Bs within walking distance of the house were located in the village.
My target market client was business-executives from Washington DC/Baltimore, Philadelphia, and NYC areas that loved to fly-fish. I wanted to cater to the suits on the weekends and the die-hard fly-fishermen during the middle of the week. At the time the three local B&B’s sold rooms for $60-$80 a night. The resort sold rooms from $75-$100 a night.
We had 5 rooms at our B&B and I priced the rooms in our first year of business at $99, $109, $139 and $195 (2 room suite). Remember this was 1994 and everyone told me I was crazy for pricing the rooms so high. Our prices were way above the local B&B’s that were literally right next door to us. My pricing strategy was a combination of competition-based and consumer-based pricing.
My pricing strategy was pure positioning. I wanted to position the house against the resort and sell rooms slightly higher than the resort making our lodging the most expensive in the area. My sole reasoning for this pricing strategy was that “executive” type buyers pay first class prices. I knew from research that my target client from the three cities/areas I was targeting with my marketing and advertising, paid for rooms that cost $100-$200 per night. My target client rarely paid under $100 per night. My pricing strategy worked and we successfully acquired the type of client we wanted and we sold out every weekend and we acquired the die-hard fly-fishermen during the mid-week. Sometimes we discounted the rooms during the mid-week to reach the non-executive types but this wasn’t our #1 focus.
If you don’t have a pricing strategy take time out from your business to review just exactly how and why you price the products the way you do. Review the traditional pricing models above and see if you can find a model that one reaches your target client and two positions you how you want to be positioned against your competition. The easiest way to grow sales and or increase profitability in your travel business is by changing your pricing. The Automated-Booking Markup Strategy is a proven website marketing tactic and a pricing strategy combined. The Automated-Booking Markup Strategy increased annual profits in my last online travel business by more than 10% and in the last three years prior to acquisition of the company we increased sales by 33%, 74% and close to 100% respectively.
The Automated-Booking Markup Strategy will increase bookings and profits for your travel business and I guarantee it. The power behind the Automated-Booking Markup Strategy is that it creates urgency for buyers to return to your website and buy your travel products. Literally every week ON-schedule you will receive new reservations.
The Automated-Booking Markup Strategy works for online travel businesses, tour operators, travel agencies, travel portals, hotels, motels, B&Bs, guides, and any business in the travel and tourism industry that accepts reservations or bookings online.
At most companies today, pricing is a mix of marking up costs, matching competitors, and doing things "the way that they have always been done." A simple change in the way that managers think about pricing can reap a financial windfall. The key to better pricing is to "think like a customer" and set prices to capture the value that consumers place on a product or service. The beauty of focusing on better pricing is that prices can be changed on Sunday night and new profits can start rolling in as early as Monday morning.
Consider airline travel. On a packed cross country airline trip, how much would you pay for the benefit of not having someone sitting next to you in the middle seat? No airline has been able to capitalize on the tremendous value that passengers reap when someone is not squeezed in next to them. For me, an empty middle seat equates to enjoyable flight: no jabs and plenty of room to spread out my work materials. It's almost as good as first class.
Today, it's generally luck that determines which middle seats remain vacant at take off. When a flight is not sold out (which is often), some passengers are "luckier" than others. Why not start charging passengers for this added value?
One way to essentially guarantee that no one will sit in the middle seat is to simply purchase the middle seat, as some travelers do on international trips. However, there is another, lower priced, "no middle seat" option that may make sense to both airlines and consumers.
Here's my thinking: suppose two people book a trip and take the window and aisle seats. For, say, $100, the airline will "hold" the middle seat and designate it as one of the last seats to be sold. If demand ends up high, the airline will sell the middle seat to reap full revenue and refund the initially paid $100 option fee. If the plane is not sold out, the middle seat remains open. The benefits of offering a "no middle seat" option are two-fold: consumers have the opportunity to boost their chances of enjoying a relaxing flight and airlines reap revenue from unused capacity.
Source: The Streets by Rafi Mohammed
The American publishers want to master their own price policy, as price is a complete part of the marketingmix. Amazon-boss Jeff Bezos has every interest in keeping the prices for ebooks low, so he can move consumers into choosing the Kindle platform for their ebooks. The retailer came up with a smart move. He offers the publisher 70% of the royalties that Amazon makes on the sales of the ebooks. But to get 70% of the royalties the price for an ebook needs to be under $10. It is nice to see that different kinds of mechanisms are being brought to life, that forces publishers to think about their pricestrategy for ebooks. Otherwise it is also weird that retailers can enforce this way such a market power!
It is nice to see that different kinds of mechanisms are being brought to life, that forces publishers to think about their pricestrategy for ebooks. Otherwise it is also weird that retailers can enforce this way such a market power!
Eén van de succesfactoren van de Kindle ereader is dat veel Amerikaanse bestsellers in digitale vorm voor minder dan 10 dollar verkrijgbaar zijn. Aanvankelijk stelde Amazon onder het wholesaler model zelf de ebookprijzen vast, maar onder druk van uitgevers besloot de retailer over te gaan op het agency model, waarbij de uitgever de prijzen bepaalt. Amazon probeert nu op een andere manier de ebookprijzen laag te houden. Toen de Kindle eind 2007 op de markt kwam waren er direct al tientallen boeken uit de bestsellerlijst van de New York Times voorhanden als ebook, de meesten onder de ‘magische’ tien dollargrens. Veel mensen verbaasden zich over deze lage prijzen, vooral in vergelijking met de hardcover versies, die vaak meer dan het dubbele kosten. Het waren echter niet de uitgevers die deze lage ebookprijzen entameerden, maar Amazon, die als wholesaler de ebooks inkocht van uitgeverijen en die tegen een zelf vast te stellen verkoopprijs ging aanbieden. Dat zette echter kwaad bloed bij Amerikaanse uitgeverijen, die hun eigen prijsbeleid willen hanteren, prijs is immers een integraal onderdeel van de marketingmix. Onder druk van een paar van de grootste uitgevers die dreigden hun ebooks terug te trekken besloot Amazon daarom over te stappen op het agency model, waarbij de uitgever de verkoopprijs van de ebooks kan vaststellen. Enerzijds is het goed om te zien dat er mechanismen in het leven worden geroepen die uitgevers nog eens goed laten nadenken over hun prijsstrategie voor digitale boeken, aan de andere kant is het uiterst merkwaardig dat een retailer op deze wijze zoveel marktmacht kan afdwingen. Sommige boeken – of ze nu op papier of digitaal worden uitgegeven – vragen nu eenmaal meer tijd en onderzoek, om over redactie en vertalen nog niet te spreken, dan andere boeken. Dat moet zich kunnen vertalen in een hogere verkoopprijs, maar dat wordt nu bestraft door een marktpartij die alle (soorten) ebooks op één lijn zet – chicklit naast literaire meesterwerken, scripties naast gedegen wetenschappelijke onderzoeken. En dat is uiterst kwalijk. Het is dus wachten op een nieuwe revolte, of op partijen die Amazon met gunstiger voorwaarden de loef gaan afsteken.
Toen de Kindle eind 2007 op de markt kwam waren er direct al tientallen boeken uit de bestsellerlijst van de New York Times voorhanden als ebook, de meesten onder de ‘magische’ tien dollargrens. Veel mensen verbaasden zich over deze lage prijzen, vooral in vergelijking met de hardcover versies, die vaak meer dan het dubbele kosten. Het waren echter niet de uitgevers die deze lage ebookprijzen entameerden, maar Amazon, die als wholesaler de ebooks inkocht van uitgeverijen en die tegen een zelf vast te stellen verkoopprijs ging aanbieden. Dat zette echter kwaad bloed bij Amerikaanse uitgeverijen, die hun eigen prijsbeleid willen hanteren, prijs is immers een integraal onderdeel van de marketingmix. Onder druk van een paar van de grootste uitgevers die dreigden hun ebooks terug te trekken besloot Amazon daarom over te stappen op het agency model, waarbij de uitgever de verkoopprijs van de ebooks kan vaststellen.
Dat zette echter kwaad bloed bij Amerikaanse uitgeverijen, die hun eigen prijsbeleid willen hanteren, prijs is immers een integraal onderdeel van de marketingmix. Onder druk van een paar van de grootste uitgevers die dreigden hun ebooks terug te trekken besloot Amazon daarom over te stappen op het agency model, waarbij de uitgever de verkoopprijs van de ebooks kan vaststellen.Amazon-baas Jeff Bezos heeft er echter alle belang bij de ebooks niet te duur aan te bieden, om zoveel mogelijk consumenten ertoe te bewegen te kiezen voor het Kindle platform. Daarom heeft Amazon een slimme list bedacht, om het gros van de ebooks toch onder de tien dollar te kunnen blijven aanbieden: vanaf vandaag keert de retailer namelijk 70% royalty’s uit over de door hen verkochte ebooks, in plaats van de 30% die eerst van toepassing was. Maar om in aanmerking te komen voor dit verhoogde royaltypercentage moet de verkoopprijs van het ebook wel onder de $10 liggen. Voor ebooks met een hogere verkoopprijs geldt nog steeds het oude 30% tarief. Dit is niet de enige voorwaarde die de internetreus oplegt; zo moeten uitgevers de ebooks beschikbaar maken in alle regio’s waar ze de rechten voor hebben en de verkoopprijs van het ebook moet minstens 20% lager zijn dan de laagste prijs die voor het fysieke boek wordt gevraagd. Naast nog enkele andere voorwaarden worden ook nog de digitale verzendkosten afgetrokken van de opbrengst (15 dollarcent per MB).
Enerzijds is het goed om te zien dat er mechanismen in het leven worden geroepen die uitgevers nog eens goed laten nadenken over hun prijsstrategie voor digitale boeken, aan de andere kant is het uiterst merkwaardig dat een retailer op deze wijze zoveel marktmacht kan afdwingen.
Sommige boeken – of ze nu op papier of digitaal worden uitgegeven – vragen nu eenmaal meer tijd en onderzoek, om over redactie en vertalen nog niet te spreken, dan andere boeken. Dat moet zich kunnen vertalen in een hogere verkoopprijs, maar dat wordt nu bestraft door een marktpartij die alle (soorten) ebooks op één lijn zet – chicklit naast literaire meesterwerken, scripties naast gedegen wetenschappelijke onderzoeken. En dat is uiterst kwalijk. Het is dus wachten op een nieuwe revolte, of op partijen die Amazon met gunstiger voorwaarden de loef gaan afsteken.
The solution? Cut your prices to gain volume and scale. That definitely works for a few companies. But the reality is a very few—think Wal-Mart or Costco or Southwest Airlines. In fact, the very success of these business models makes it difficult for their competitors to duplicate—think Kmart or Sears, or any number of bankrupt budget airlines.
This article is for everybody else: those who choose not to compete on the basis of cost and low price. This article is for companies that can and should compete on the basis of performance, for which their customers willingly pay higher prices. By competing on performance instead of price, you shift the battle to where your company's strengths lie—in the ability to deliver unique benefits. So-called performance pricers are adept at three core activities: identifying where they can do a superior job of meeting customers' needs and preferences; shaping their products and their business to dominate these segments; and managing cost and price in those areas to maximize profits. If you can find these performance segments, manage them cost-effectively, and communicate to the customer the extra value being delivered, then as long as your offering is superior to the competition or other alternatives, you will be able to boost both prices and profits.
For an idea of how to become a master of performance pricing, let's consider a global chemical company we studied. For years the company had a pretty typical sales rule: It would take any order at any acceptable price. That sounds familiar, no doubt. But by 2003, it had recognized this wouldn't generate acceptable shareholder returns or growth. So the company switched to performance pricing, using a continuing four-step process that any company can duplicate: Identify value opportunities, choose which ones to prioritize, align their value and price, and constantly communicate to customers the value being provided. Here's a look at each of their four steps.
Identify Value Opportunities
The leaders of the company started out by repeatedly asking in meetings across functions: What can we do to help our customers succeed or be happier? Every product, service and benefit the company delivered to its customers was examined to better understand all of the ways in which it had some impact on the customer, and how the offering could be improved.Take a simple example: The company sells rubber stoppers to packagers of pharmaceuticals that use the stoppers to cap containers of injectable drugs. The company had long viewed the stoppers as a commodity. They're easy to make, perform a simple function and cost very little. But looking at them afresh, from the customers' perspective, it recognized that the stoppers could deliver multiple benefits to customers, and that these benefits could be quantified and ranked in terms of the value they produced for the customer. The stoppers' low price was only the first benefit. Their design could be tweaked to improve customers' packaging-line speeds, lowering their operating costs. And because the customers used the stoppers to seal vials with different contents, making stoppers in different colors was recognized as a way to help hospitals and doctors reduce errors by making each vial more recognizable, and thus lower their insurance costs.
After detailing the benefits, the company had to decide which products to develop further and how to invest its resources accordingly. To be considered for performance pricing, an offering had to meet two basic tests. First, it had to have either a strong competitive position in its market or a highly ranked benefit to the customer (benefits were ranked, from low to high, in three groups: offering low acquisition price, helping reduce operating costs, and improving sales by enhancing quality). And second, the product had to be manufacturable at a cost that yielded attractive profit margins. Thus, any product whose main benefit was its low sale price was likely to be rejected. But so were premium products if their costs were high and their projected total market too small. For example, the company had done well with a certain dental-filling product, but the total potential market was extremely limited and the investment costs would have included long, expensive testing of the product on people. The stoppers, by comparison, looked promising. They offered highly valued benefits to customers, and could be produced at low cost.
Align Price and Value
The next step was to set higher prices in line with what the customer was willing to pay. The key here is being able to document and quantify the precise nature of the benefits that your products offer, and to figure out what their tangible value is to the customer, in terms of acquisition cost, operating cost and added value to the end user. Once the supporting data are in hand, then you sit down with the customer to discuss what the new price should be. In the case of the rubber stoppers, the company used the data to successfully argue to a customer that two products, while nearly identical in appearance, should be priced very differently because of the different ways they were used. One stopper sealed vials of a vaccine for chickens that the customer sold for less than $5 a vial; the other sealed vials of an anticancer medication that sold for more than $1,000. While the stoppers looked alike, the higher-value application had tighter tolerances and came with significantly more technical assistance, service responsiveness and quality-control data, due to the difference in the costs and risks associated with the two stoppers. Indeed, failure of the seals on a few of the anticancer vials would have far greater impact on the customer's bottom line than a few ruined vials of the chicken vaccine. And, while both kinds of stoppers helped production—in terms of high packaging-line run efficiency and low scrap rates—higher efficiency for the anticancer vials, resulting from the technical assistance and tighter tolerances, translated into increased profits for the customer. Thus the chemical company proposed a significantly higher price for the anticancer-vial stopper, and presented reams of data from the tracking system to support its argument. The customer later came back with figures of its own that painted a lesser impact than the company had suggested. But the customer's figures were in the ball park, the chemical company said. The two companies agreed on a new price for the anticancer stoppers that was a multiple of the price for the chicken-vaccine stoppers, and both parties felt like winners.
Such a system relies on a lot of help from the customer, and getting that cooperation takes work. The chemical company had to display a thorough understanding of all the issues the packager faced to win its case for the differently priced stoppers. After such increases are won, continuing efforts to communicate why higher prices are justified can bring other benefits as well. By adopting performance pricing throughout the firm, over the next five years, the chemical company's profits grew 10% annually in a market growing less than 2% a year. The approach also provided a strategy that allowed the company to weather the recession better than competitors: In 2009, industry volume declined more than 20%, compared with 14% for the company. But, despite lower volume, the company's return on sales increased by more than 40% due to its ability to identify value opportunities, prioritize requirements, align value and price, and communicate value to cost-conscious customers.
Source: By Frank V. Cespedes, Elliot B. Ross and Benson P. Shapiro.
According to ZF, the company has abandoned its policy of charging everyone the same, regardless of local context. As a result, some clients will pay €3.50 a month for 2 Mbps internet access, while others will be charged between €4.20 and €4.90. At the same time, the number of internet packages has been reduced from seven to three in order to bring it into line with the 2-4 offered by UPC and RCS/RDS.
Romtelecom has seen a surge in internet subscriber numbers in the last three years – up from 170,000 in 2007 to today’s 800,000, with 300,000 signing up in 2008 alone.
Many of the latter are on two-year contracts than come up for renewal this year, and Romtelecom, according to Ovidiu Ghiman, its executive director of strategy and business development, is keen to retain them.
The European Pricing Platform conducts this year a European study among European managers on the key success factors in pricing. It is aimed at discovering in which phase of pricing development European organizations are. As well as discovering which factors are being experienced as successful.
This survey is the result of a cooperation between the ePP and prof. Oliver Roll of the 'University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück - Germany'.
ePP has recently added SPMG as a new Pricing Expert, but also as an exhibitor and sponsor of upcoming ePP events throughout Europe.
The European Pricing Platform is very pleased to have SPMG as a new Pricing Expert partner and looks forward to working closely with them in the near future.
The President of SPMG, Michael Hurwich, has consulted to major Fortune 500 and mid-sized firms for the past 15 years. Michael has developed numerous corporate and business strategies for a broad range of industries. He has also written numerous articles on pricing and marketing strategies, and gives lectures all over the world.
About European Pricing Platform:
The ePP offes your company to have the right pricing tactics in place to guarantee customer loyalty and deliver sustained margin growth to your business. Enhance your pricing know-how and be succesful in it by joining this dynamic and yet resourceful pricing platform.
The new rising pricing strategy, is one where the collaboration between vendor and client serves as the starting point. This is a strategy which does right at the changing ratio between these two parties. Definetely important for the B2B market, where there is a big dependence amongst both these parties.
'Check de juiste prijs in de b-to-b markt'
Een nieuwe manier van prijsbepaling in de business-to-business markt is in opkomst, zo blijkt uit onderzoek van de Universiteit van Twente naar best practices in value based pricing. De onderzoekers publiceerden een korte checklist om tot de juiste prijs te komen.
'Vraag wat de klant nog net wil betalen' was tot nu toe het prijsmotto in de business-to-business markt. Met andere woorden: maak de prijs zo hoog mogelijk. Maar die strategie blijkt lang niet altijd effectief.
Uitgaan van de waarde van het product, oftewel value based pricing, is al een tijdje een populair prijsinstrument in de b-to-b markt. Daarbij wordt meestal gekeken wat de concurrentie voor een vergelijkbaar artikel vraagt, waarna de producent vervolgens een zo hoog mogelijke prijs vaststelt. En als het om een superieur product gaat, komt daar nog eens een premiumbedrag bovenop.
Op zich is er niets mis mee om de waarde in de prijs te verdisconteren, maar aan deze ‘eenzijdige' vorm van value based pricing zitten twee belangrijke nadelen: 1. Andere en meer winstgevende manieren om te profiteren van de superioriteit van een artikel worden niet bekeken en benut. 2. De relatie met de klant wordt niet sterker, maar eerder zwakker bij deze prijsstrategie.
Een nieuwe manier van prijsbepaling is in opkomst, eentje die uitgaat van samenwerking tussen leverancier en klant, en daarmee recht doet aan de veranderde verhouding tussen de partijen. Zeker in de business-to-business markt is de onderlinge afhankelijkheid groot, dus zijn er tegenwoordig nog maar weinig producenten die het zich kunnen veroorloven om eenzijdig de hoogte van de prijzen te dicteren. Leveranciers die verantwoorde marges willen halen, zullen iets anders moeten verzinnen. De voorbeelden zijn gelukkig al voorhanden.Neem bijvoorbeeld chipmachinefabrikant ASML, die zich onder andere dankzij nauwe samenwerking met afnemers en een slimme prijsstrategie verrassend snel herstelde van de crisis. Het bedrijf laat zijn klanten om te beginnen zien hoe zij hun omzet kunnen verhogen met de technologie van ASML en calculeert vervolgens zijn prijzen mede op grond van die omzetverhoging, zonder daarbij de afnemer het vel over de oren te halen. Resultaat: tevreden klanten die begrijpen hoe de prijs tot stand is gekomen en die weten dat ze niet teveel betalen.
De onderzoekers hebben managers uit Amerikaanse, Europese en Aziatische bedrijven geïnterviewd, en uit hun bevindingen een zestal vragen gedestilleerd waarmee elke producent in de b-to-b markt zelf kan bepalen of zijn prijzen ‘slim' en voldoende onderbouwd zijn:
Welk doel streef ik als bedrijf na in dit marktsegment? Wat is de transparante meerwaarde van mijn product voor de afnemer? Transparant betekent dat de klant begrijpt hoe er gecalculeerd is en dat hij de waarde van het product kan vergelijken met concurrerende aanbiedingen. Wat is de prijs van het beste alternatieve product? Wat zijn de daadwerkelijke kosten van het product? Welke prijsstrategieën zet ik in, op korte en op langere termijn? Wat is volgens de afnemer een eerlijke prijs?
De kern van deze checklist is volgens de onderzoekers dat slim prijsbeleid vooral een kwestie is van in de huid van de klant kruipen. ‘De essentie is dat je snapt hoe de afnemer tot zijn besluitvorming komt'.
[ Bron: Kluwermanagement.nl ]